Written By Guest Bloggers Nicholas Appolonia, FA-C, MSN, PhD, CMIO, CEO, HIT GROUP and Arlene Ophof, MHA, BSN, SVP Clinical Informatics, CIS Training & Sustainment
1. Executive Summary
Instructional design has been identified as the most valuable resource since it is the resource that brings the systematic process of planning and managing instruction to achieve effective learning. It means it is the process of translating general principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials and learning. Every instructional material are designed, developed, and delivered from instructional design plan system.
Each step of the instructional design brings into action in order to successfully achieve desired goals and objectives. There are few various recourses on instructional design such as, instructional technology, educational technology, curriculum design, and instructional systems designs.
In this project I have discussed about the instructional design plan. I have used observation about what it is, what the process is and what are the best practices.
Also as a part of documenting the practice of instructional design plan, there are three models need to be addressed. The most important or used model is Addie model. The other two models, Kemp model and dick and Carey model also gives some value to the instructional design plan.
The main purpose of this is to,
- Define instructional design concepts
- Instructional Systems Design process
- Practice of instructional design plan
- The models of the instructional plans
- Discuss each model.
2. Definition of Instructional Design
Instructional Design (also called Instructional Systems Design (ISD)). Instructional Design is the analysis of learning needs and systematic development of instruction. So it is the practice of creating instructional experiences and skill more efficient, effective, and appealing. Systematic guidelines instructional designers follow in order to create a workshop, a course, a curriculum, an instructional program, or a training session. Ideally, workplace learning improves employee productivity and value and enhances self-directed learning.
Instructional designers often use Instructional technology as a method for developing instruction. If followed the typically specified method in instructional
models, it will facilitate the transfer of knowledge, skills and attitude to the recipient or acquirer of the instruction. So it increase and enhance the possibility of learning, makes the acquisition of knowledge and skill more efficient, effective. The systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory is to ensure the quality of instruction. So learners can learn faster and gain deeper levels of understanding. It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. It includes development of instructional materials and activities; and tryout and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities.
2.2 Instructional Systems Design process
The systematic process consist translating general principles of learning and instruction such as determining the current state and needs of the learner into plans for instructional materials and learning it is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. This is the process which is undertaken during the development of training and educational programs and resources. It includes development of instructional materials and activities; and tryout and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities. This increase and enhance the possibility of learning, makes the acquisition of knowledge and skill more efficient, effective, and appealing and encourages the engagement of learners so that they learn faster and gain deeper levels of understanding.
In short, instructional design is the systematic process by which instructional materials are designed, developed, and delivered.
3. The Practice of Instructional Design
3.1 Instructional Systems Design models
Instructional Design (ID) Models are the logical guidelines instructional designers follow in order to create a workshop, a course, a curriculum, an instructional program, or a training session. These Models are conceived of representations of an instructional design process, showing the main elements or phases, and their relationships.
There are three instructional design models,
- Addie Model
- The Dick & Carey Model
- Kemp Model
Many are based on the ADDIE model with the five phases: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.
3.1.1 Addie Model
The model contained several steps under its five phases (Analyze, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluate). These processes represent a energizing, flexible guideline for building effective training and performance support tools. Addie model is the generic process used by instructional designers and training developers. The ADDIE model is at the very core of instructional design and is the basis of instructional systems design (ISD). An effective learning can take place when it aims for a learner-centered rather than the traditional teacher-centered approach to instruction.
- Analyze – The first phase of content development is Analysis. This is the process of defining what is to be learned such as problem, identify the source of the problem and determine possible solutions. It refers to the gathering of information about one’s audience, the tasks to be completed, how the learners will view the content, and the learning environment and learner’s existing knowledge and skills are identified and the project’s overall goals.
- Design – The second phase is the Design phase. This is the process of specifying how it is to be learned. The instructional designers begin to create their project using the outputs from the analyze phase. So it can plan a strategy for developing the instruction.
The outputs from the analysis phase, in conjunction with the theories and models of instructional design, this is meant to explain how the learning will be acquired.
Some of the elements of the Design Phase may include learning objectives, writing a target population description, assessment instruments, exercises, content, selecting a delivery system , subject matter analysis, lesson planning and media selection. The design phase should be systematic and specific.
- Development – The third phase, Development, involves the creation of the activities that will be implemented. This is the process of authoring and producing the materials. It is in this stage that the blueprints of the design phase are assembled. This involves analyze and design phases. In this phase story boards are created, graphics are designed, all media that will be used in the instruction will develop such as hardware and software.
- Implementation – After the content is developed, it is then implemented. This is the process of installing the project in the real world context. This stage allows the instructional designer to test all materials to determine if they are functional and appropriate for the intended audience. It means this is procedure for training the facilitators and the learners are developed. In this phase it covers the method of delivery learning outcomes, because the main goals of this phase it to get an effective and efficient delivery of instruction.
- Evaluate – The final phase, Evaluate, ensures the materials achieved the desired goals and measures the effectiveness and efficiency of the instruction. This is the process of determining the adequacy of the instruction.. In this process the designers can assess and revise the projects elements if necessary. Because of that the ADDIE model is an iterative process of instructional design. This phase should occur overall the entire process such as within phases after implementation between phases. The evaluation phase consists of two parts: formative evaluation and summative evaluation.
- Formative evaluation: This is present in each stage of the ADDIE process. This is multidimensional and an essential component of ADDIE process. Because, this is ongoing during and between phases. Formative evaluation improves the instruction before the final version is implemented. That is the purpose of this type of evaluation.
- Summative evaluation: summative evaluation is done for instructional improvement. So these contain tests or evaluations created for the content being implemented. This usually occurs after the final version of instruction is implemented. This final phase is vital for the instructional design team because it provides data used to alter and enhance the design. The designer throughout the evaluation phase should ascertain if the problem relevant to the training program is solved and whether the desired objectives are met. And also data from this often used to make decisions about the instruction.
3.1.2 Dick and Carey model
Another well-known instructional design model is The Dick and Carey model. This model was originally published in 1978 by Walter Dick and Lou Carey in their book entitled The Systematic Design of Instruction. According to Dick and Carey, “Components such as the instructor, learners, materials, instructional activities, delivery system, and learning and performance environments interact with each other and work together to bring about the desired student learning outcomes”
This model is specifically targeted skills and knowledge and supplies conditions for the learning of these outcomes. This entire system, focusing on content, interrelationship between context, learning and instruction. The components of the Systems Approach Model, also known as the Dick and Carey Model, are as follows:
- Assessing Needs to Identify Instructional Goal(s). A goal statement describes a skill, knowledge or attitude (SKA) that a learner will be expected to acquire,
- Identifying subordinate skills and entry behaviors. Identify what a learner must recall and identify what learner must be able to do to perform particular task
- Analyzing Learners and Contexts. Identify general characteristics of the target audience, including prior skills, prior experience, and basic demographics; identify characteristics directly related to the skill to be taught; and perform analysis of the performance and learning settings.
- Writing Performance Objectives. An objective consists of a description of the behavior, the condition and criteria. The component of an objective that describes the criteria will be used to judge the learner’s performance.
- Developing Assessment Instruments. Purpose of entry behavior testing, purpose of pretesting, purpose of post-testing, purpose of practice items.
- Developing an Instructional Strategy. Pre-instructional activities, content presentation, Learner participation, assessment
- Developing Instructional Materials. Aims to produce instructional materials.
- Designing and Conducting Formative Evaluations. Designers try to identify areas of the instructional materials that need improvement.
- Revising Instructional Materials. The aim is to revise the instruction. And to make it as effective as possible for larger number of students.
Designing and Conducting Summative Evaluations. Summative evaluations used after an instructional program has been implemented and formative evaluation completed. So it can judge the whole instructions.
3.1.3 The Kemp model
The Jerold Kemp instructional design method and model defines nine different components to adopt a continuous implementation/evaluation model. The Kemp Design Model takes into consideration the uniqueness of each individual designer. The Kemp Design Model draws from a number of different disciplines and approaches to instructional design. The oval shape of his model adopts a wide view. Unlike other instructional design models like the Dick and Carey Model, The Kemp Design Model is circular, rather than linear. The Kemp model can start the design process at any point, and the various stages can also be performed simultaneously. Some stages may not even be required at all depending on the process and design.
It is a continuous cycle that requires constant planning, design, development and assessment to insure effective instruction.
The Kemp Design Model consists of 9 steps
- Identify instructional problems, and specify goals for designing an instructional program.
2. Examine learner characteristics that should receive attention during planning.
3. Identify subject content, and analyze task components related to stated goals and purposes.
4. State instructional objectives for the learner.
5. Sequence content within each instructional unit for logical learning.
6. Design instructional strategies so that each learner can master the objectives.
7. Plan the instructional message and delivery.
8. Develop evaluation instruments to assess objectives.
9. Select resources to support instruction and learning activities.